‘’Education is the process of learning and acquiring information, knowledge in basic skills, academics, technical, discipline, and citizenship. It is the process of receiving or giving systematic instruction, esp. at a school or university: a new system of public education. The means through which the aims and habits of a group of people lives on from one generation to the next’’. From all the definitions given above, it shows that Education includes; formal and informal. In that case, if one part is missing, it is incomplete.
It is what everyone wants to have. In this era, everyone tries to be educated, but there is a ‘’mix up’’ in the way people interpret it. Education is beyond being able to read and write, which is literacy. Education is beyond being an undergraduate or a post graduate of a university. It is beyond being a professor. Many believe that as long as they have some academic qualification they are qualified to be called an educated fellows or because they can read and write or because they have travelled around the world and mingle with different people from different continent as it is said that travelling is part of education; those things have approved them of being educated. To be able to read and write is just a fraction of being educated.
One must possess the complete domains. These domains have to do with being able to read and write which most people take as the major aspect need to be educated. To be educated entails three major things called domains, of which, if one is missing renders education incomplete.
- Cognitive Domain:
- Affective Domain, and
- Psychomotor domain.
This domain has to do with knowledge and intellectual skills, school activities. Knowledge, comprehension/understanding, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation. In general, teaching should be directed to the areas of application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation rather than towards only the acquisition of knowledge and understanding, although, of course, the gaining of knowledge is a pre-requisite to the performance of the higher level achievements.
Cognitive domain consist of six major categories, starting from the simplest to the most complex, higher cognitive skills provide opportunities for student to develop interpersonal domain learning.:
- Knowledge: Recalling specific and general items of information and also information about methods, processes and patterns.
- Comprehension: Recognition of items of information settings similar to but different from those in which they were first encountered.
- Application: Explaining previously unseen data or events by applying knowledge from other situations.
- Analysis: Breaking down blocks of information into elements for the purpose of clarification.
- Synthesis: Combining elements to form coherent units of information.
Evaluation: Making judgements about the value of information, materials or methods for given purposes. ”
“The affective domain includes objectives which describe changes in interest, attitudes and values, and the development of appreciations and adequate adjustment. The affective domain is based upon behavioural aspects and may be labelled as beliefs. The three levels in the domain are awareness, distinction, and integration This domain has a pattern of development similar to the cognitive domain. At the lowest level, the child is merely aware of the fact that other people have particular attitudes and values. The affective domain is critical for learning but is often not specifically addressed. This is the domain that deals with attitudes, motivation, willingness to participate, valuing what is being learned, and ultimately incorporating the values of a discipline into a way of life.
Stages in that domain are not as sequential as the cognitive domain, but have been described as the following:
- Receiving (willing to listen)
- Responding (willing to participate)
- Valuing (willing to be involved)
- Organizing (willing to be an advocate)
- Characterization (willing to change one’s behaviour, lifestyle, or way of life)
The psychomotor domain includes physical and muscular skills. Every act has a psychomotor component. Writing and talking are psychomotor skills which must be acquired one is to function successfully in the society. The psychomotor domain includes physical movement, coordination, and use of the motor-skill areas. Development of these skills requires practice and is measured in terms of speed, precision, distance, procedures, or techniques in execution. This domain has some sequential levels too, and these include:
- Reflex Movements: Reflex movements are defined as involuntary motor responses to stimuli. They form the basis for all behaviour involving movement of any kind.
- Basic Fundamental Movements: Basic fundamental movements are defined as those inherent body movement patterns, which build upon the foundation laid by reflex movements
- Perceptual Abilities: Perceptual abilities are really inseparable from motor movements. They help learners to interpret stimuli so that they can adjust to their environment.
- Skilled Movements: Skilled movements are defined as any efficiently performed complex movement. They require learning and should be based upon some adaptation of the inherent patterns of movement described in level number two above.
- Non-Discursive Communication: Non-discursive communication can be defined as comprising those behaviours which are involved in movement communication. They can range from facial expressions to highly sophisticated dance choreographies as in classical ballet. “
- Physical abilities: Physical abilities are essential to efficient motor activity. They are concerned with the vigour of the person, and allow the individual to meet the demands placed upon him or her in and by the environment.
With all the explanation made above, it is not worthy to be called an educated person if one of the above domains is missing. Someone who is cognitively sound; intelligent, knowledgeable and literate but lacks attitude, approaching procedures, appreciation and other affective features is not educated. All that is built cognitively can be ruined within a second with a bad attitude. These two domains are driven and propelled by psychomotor domain. Psychomotor domain involves physical movement, coordination, and use of the muscular-skill areas which is. This is the development of skills that requires practice and is measured in terms of speed, precision, distance, procedures, or techniques. Without this, the acquired knowledge and skills are not put into practice and as a result, are useless. Are you educated?
Thanks for reading my posts. Your comments, discusion and corrections are highly welcome!
- Thomas Hills: Why human intelligence isn’t evolving faster (guardian.co.uk)
- Understanding understanding with notes (slideshare.net)